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About learning disability

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About learning disability

Learning disabilities affect one's ability in the domains of spoken or written language, mathematical calculation, attention, or the coordination of movement. They can be lifelong conditions and multiple learning disabilities overlap in some people.
Some specific categories of learning disabilities include:
• Dyslexia
• Dysgraphia
• Dyscalculia
• Non-verbal learning disorder
• Apraxia of speech
• Central auditory processing disorder

Symptoms

Specific Learning Disorder is characterised by at least 1 difficulty. The difficulty lasts at least 6 months despite interventions and can include difficulty with:
• Reading
• Spelling
• Written expression
• Understanding numbers or calculation
• Mathematical reasoning
For diagnosis, the affected skills must be markedly below what is expected for the individual's age, and the difficulty must interfere with performance or daily activities.

Causes

While the causes of learning disabilities are not fully understood, a number of risk factors have been identified. These include genes, premature birth, very low birth weight, the use of nicotine/ alcohol/ drugs during pregnancy, and severe deficits in nutrition during infancy.

Treatment

Learning disabilities are most commonly addressed with special education. Treatment may also involve the services of therapists who specialise in particular domains, such as speech and language. In some cases, medications may be used to increase a child's ability to focus.
The specific details of interventions differ based on the type of disability and its severity.

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